Loftus Road club face points deduction if charges are proved over third-party ownership.
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Argentinian football club Instituto de Córdoba did not receive a penny when Alejandro Faurlin signed for Queens Park Rangers but the Championship side denies any wrong-doing.
QPR are charged with seven breaches of Football Association rules connected with the transfer of Faurlin in July 2009 and his contract extension last October.
The most serious charge alleges the 24-year-old was owned by a third-party during the 2009-10 season.
Third-party ownership was banned by the Premier League and FA after the Carlos Tevez saga in 2006 and QPR are the first club to be charged with breaking the rules.
If found guilty, QPR, currently the Championship leaders, will be docked points which could cost them promotion.
QPR state on their website the deal was worth £3.5million but sources in Argentina confirm Instituto were paid nothing.
All payments by English clubs when buying any player has to go through the FA, so the governing body is aware that no payment was made.
The West London team argue Faurlin was a free agent after coming to the end of his contract with Instituto.
But the FA believes the registration of Faurlín, who has impressed in the Championship, was in fact owned by an Argentinian company.
West Ham were fined £5.5million for irregularities concerning the Carlos Tevez deal and QPR could expect a similar fine, as well as a points reduction.
The other charges, relating to use of an ‘unauthorised agent’ and the QPR chairman, Gianni Paladini, submitting false documentation when renegotiating Faurlin’s contract, are less significant.
The agent involved is Peppino Tirri. The Italian holds a Fifa licence but is registered in England, as the FA requires.
Being “unauthorised” in that way is not as serious for a club as dealing with an agent who holds no licence.